608 articles
  • NEW TABLE GRAPE VARIETIES OF IMIDA-ITUM BREEDING PROGRAM FOR THE WORLD NUEVAS VARIEDADES DE UVA DE MESA PARA EL MUNDO OBTENIDAS EN EL PORGRAMA DE MEJORA GENÉTICA IMIDA-ITUM
    TORNEL, Manuel1*; MELLADO, Carolina2; SERRANO, Marisa2 1 Instituto Murciano de Investigación y Desarrollo Agrario y Alimentario (IMIDA), Murcia, España 2 Investigación y Tecnología de Uva de Mesa (ITUM), Murcia, España *Corresponding autor: tornel@itumgrapes.com

    Murcia is the Spanish region that produces and exports the largest amount of table grapes, with some European countries consuming a large proportion of the 168,000 tons produced. Thirty years ago the vine growers of our region cultivated local varieties with seeds, then the varietal landscape was transformed with the foreign seedless varieties and...
  • VARIETAL GRAPES JUICE A PRODUCTIVE CHOICE FOR THE DEVELOPMENT AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION OF MARGINAL WINE-GROWING AREAS JUGO DE UVA UNA OPCIÓN PRODUCTIVA PARA EL DESARROLLO Y LA CONSERVACIÓN DEL MEDIO AMBIENTE EN LAS ZONAS MARGINALES VITIVINÍCOLAS
    TIBERI, Domenico1; PIETROMARCHI, Paolo1; CASADEI, Giorgio2; CARGNELLO, Giovanni3; CECCHINI, Francesca1* 1 CREA (Consiglio per la ricerca in agricoltura e l’analisi dell’economia agraria)- Viticulture and Enology Center. Via Cantina Sperimentale 1, (00049) Velletri (RM),Italia 2 ARSIAL (Agenzia Regionale per lo Sviluppo e l’Innovazione dell’Agricoltura del Lazio). Via R. Lanciani, 38, (00162) Roma, Italia 3 Conegliano Campus 5.1C; (31015) Conegliano (Treviso), Italy *Corresponding Author: francesca.cecchini@crea.gov.it

    Rosciola is an antique red grape variety in the Lazio region (Italy) in the area between the Simbruini mountains and the high valley of Aniene. The name “Rosciola” is probably due to the light red color that the skin berries have to maturity. The oenological aspect was observed and evaluated over various vintages (Ciolfi G. et al., 2009). The ...
  • EFFECT OF WATER REGIME ON ANTHOCYANIN COMPOSITION OF FOUR RED WINEGRAPE CULTIVARS UNDER MEDITERANEAN CONDITIONS EFFET DU RÉGIME HYDRIQUE SUR LA COMPOSITION ANTHOCYANIQUE DE QUATRE CEPAGES NOIRS SOUS CONDITIONS MÉDITERRANÉENNES
    THEODOROU, Nikolaos1; NIKOLAOU, Nikolaos1; ZIOZIOU, Eleftheria1; KALLITHRAKA, Stamatina2; KOTSERIDIS, Yorgos2; KOUNDOURAS, Stefanos1* 1 Laboratory of Viticulture, School of Agriculture, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki, Greece Laboratory of Enology, Department of Food Science and Technology, Agricultural University of Athens, 75 IeraOdos, 11855 Athens, Greece 2 *Corresponding author: skoundou@agro.auth.gr

    Grape anthocyanin content and composition exhibit a distinctive profile among red varieties, determining wine color intensity, hue and stability. Moreover, the manipulation of vineyard water conditions by irrigation is accepted as an effective tool for controlling berry skin phenolic ripeness, especially in semiarid environments. In this study, co...
  • PERMANENT COVER CROP EFFECTS ON PLANT WATER RELATIONS, MONITORING OF CO FLUXES IN VINEYARDS TO SUPPORT SOIL ORGANIC MATTER MANAGEMENT 2 MONITOREO DE FLUJOS DE CO EN VIÑEDOS PARA APOYAR LA GESTIÓN DEL MATERIAL ORGÁNICO DEL SUELO 2
    TEZZA, Luca1*; VENDRAME, Nadia1; GHIGLIENO, Isabella2; VALENTI, Leonardo2; PITACCO, Andrea1, 3 1 University of Padova – DAFNAE, Viale dell’Università 16, I-35020 Legnaro (PD), Italy 2 University of Milano – DISAA , Via G. Celoria 2, I-20133 Milano, Italy 3 University of Padova – CIRVE, Via XXVIII Aprile 14, I-31015 Conegliano (TV), Italy * Corresponding author: luca.tezza@unipd.it

    Vineyard soils are subjected to a substantial depletion of the organic fraction due to intensive farming systems, the reduction of row spacing and the fast evolution of vineyard mechanization. The use of cover crops, grassed alleys and organic fertilization can all contribute to the increase, stabilization and protection of soil organic matter. Ho...
  • SUSTAINABLE PLANT-PARASITIC NEMATODE MANAGEMENT: A CASE STUDY FROM WASHINGTON WINE GRAPES LA GESTIÓN SOSTENIBLE DE LOS NEMATODOS PARASITARIOS DE PLANTAS: UN ESTUDIO DE CASO DE LAS UVAS DE VINO DE WASHINGTON
    ZASADA, Inga1; EAST, Katherine2; HOWLAND, Amanda3; SCHRIENER, R. Paul1; MOYER, Michelle2 1 USDA-ARS Horticultural Crops Research Unit, Corvallis, OR, 97330, United States WSU-Prosser Irrigated Agriculture Research and Extension Center, Prosser, WA 99350, United States 3 University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211, United States 2 *Corresponding author: inga.zasada@ars.usda.gov

    Plant-parasitic nematodes are cosmopolitan pests of wine grapes with yield losses worldwide estimated at approximately 5 to 8%. Managing plant-parasitic nematodes in wine grapes is challenging due to limited availability of effective nematicides and rootstocks with simultaneous resistance to multiple nematode species. The sustainable management of...
  • BIOCLIMATIC ZONING OF ARGENTINEAN MALBEC GRAPE PRODUCTION ZONIFICACIÓN BIOCLIMÁTICA DE LA PRODUCCIÓN DE UVA MALBEC EN ARGENTINA
    SOLMAN, Silvina1, 2, 3; CABRE, María Fernanda1, 3*; GONZALEZ, Marcela Hebe1, 2, 3; NUÑEZ, Mario Nestor1, 2, 3 1 CONICET - Universidad de Buenos Aires, Centro de Investigaciones del Mar y la Atmósfera CIMA/CONICET-UBA, Buenos Aires, Argentina; 2Universidad de Buenos Aires, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Departamento de Ciencias de la Atmósfera y los Océanos DCAO-FCEN-UBA, Buenos Aires, Argentina; 3Instituto Franco-Argentino para el Estudio del Clima y sus Impactos UMI IFAECI/CNRS-CONICET-UBA, Buenos Aires, Argentina *Corresponding author: cabre@cima.fcen.uba.ar

    Winegrape production is largely controlled by climate conditions. Identifying how climate conditions impact on vine allows for identifying the suitability of a specific variety for a given region. Given the relevance of the Malbec wine production in Argentina, this study is devoted to derive a Unique Combined Index (UCI) for assessing the suitabil...
  • INFLUENCE OF THE STORAGE CONDITION ON PHYSICOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF RED WINES FROM SÃO FRANCISCO VALLEY, BRAZIL L’INFLUENCE DES CONDITIONS DE STOCKAGE SUR LES CHARACTÉRISTIQUES PHYSICOCHIMIQUES DE VINS ROUGES DE LA VALLÉE DU SÃO FRANCISCO, BRÉSIL
    SOUZA, Joyce1; NASCIMENTO, Antonio1; ARAÚJO, Ana2; LIMA, Marcos2; PEREIRA, Giuliano1, 3* 1 University of Bahia State. Zipcode 48.900-000, Juazeiro-BA, Brazil, 2Food Science Department, Federal Institute of the Sertão Penambucano, Zipcode 56314-520, Petrolina-PE, Brazil, 3Enology Laboratory, Embrapa Grape & Wine/Semi-Arid, Petrolina-PE, Zipcode 56302- 970, Brazil *Corresponding author: giuliano.pereira@embrapa.br

    In the São Francisco Valley, Northeast of Brazil, tropical wines have been produced thirty years ago. Vines can produce twice a year and wine stability can change according to the harvest date. Normally wines elaborated from grapes harvested between November-December have a fast evolution, while wines from grapes harvested between June-July can h...
  • DOES THE CONTENT OF POLYPHENOLS IN GRAPE (CV. MALBEC) VARY WITH THE CHEMICAL PROPERTIES VARIATION OF THE SOILS? ¿EL CONTENIDO DE POLIFENOLES EN VID (CV MALBEC) VARÍA CON LAS PROPIEDADES QUIMICAS DE LOS SUELOS?
    SOLANES, María Eugenia1; DEIS, Leonor1*; DE ROSAS, M.Inés1; VALLONE, Rosana2; OLMEDO, Guillermo Federico2; KAISER, Martin3; MONTEPELUSO, María Sol3; CÓRDOBA, Mariano5 1 Fisiología Vegetal. Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias. Universidad Nacional de Cuyo. Almirante Brown 500. Chacras de Coria. Mendoza. Argentina. 2INTA. Mendoza, Argentina. 3Vineyard Doña Paula, manager of Viticulture and R & D. 4CCT CONICET. Mendoza, Instituto Nacional de Nivología, Glaciología y Ciencias Ambientales. 5Universidad Nacional de Córdoba. *Corresponding author: ldeis@fca.uncu.edu.ar

    In recent years, the wine industry has become increasingly interested in the influence of the terroir characteristics on the features of a wine and in particular, the mechanisms by which a soil influences wine quality. In this study were determined the grape characteristics (total soluble solids, titratable acidity, polyphenols content, cluster we...
  • WATER DEFICIT SEVERITY DURING BERRY DEVELOPMENT ALTERS ONSET OF DORMANCY TRANSITIONS IN WINE GRAPE CULTIVAR MALBEC GRAVEDAD DE ESTRÉS HÍDRICA DURANTE EL DESARROLLO DE LA UVA ALTERA LAS TRANSICIONES DE LATENCIA EN CULTIVAR MALBEC
    SHELLIE, Krista Research Horticulturist, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Horticultural Crops Research Unit, 29603 U of I Lane Parma, ID 83660 U.S.A. Corresponding author: krista.Shellie@ars.usda.gov

    Dormancy is a survival strategy for withstanding exposure to adverse environmental conditions. Grapevines (Vitis vinifera L.) are often exposed to water deficits during the growing season and freezing temperatures during winter, yet the influence of water stress on dormancy has received little research attention. In this study, we monitored the on...
  • ARE THE VARIATIONS OF THE CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF THE SOIL RELATED TO THE AROMATIC COMPOUNDS OF WINES? ¿LA VARIACIÓN DE LAS PROPIEDADES QUIIMICAS DEL SUELO ESTÁN RELACIONADAS CON LOS COMPUESTOS AROMÁTICOS DEL VINO?
    SOLANES, María Eugenia1; DEIS, Leonor1*; DE ROSAS, M.Inés1; VALLONE, Rosana2; OLMEDO, Guillermo Federico2; KAISER, Martin3; MONTEPELUSO, María Sol3; CÓRDOBA, Mariano5 1 Fisiología Vegetal. Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias. Universidad Nacional de Cuyo. Almirante Brown 500. Chacras de Coria. Mendoza. Argentina. 2INTA. Mendoza, Argentina. 3Vineyard Doña Paula, manager of Viticulture and R & D. 4CCT CONICET. Mendoza, Instituto Nacional de Nivología, Glaciología y Ciencias Ambientales. 5Universidad Nacional de Córdoba. * Corresponding author: ldeis@fca.uncu.edu.ar

    Worldwide, the wine industry is interested in the influence of terroir on wine characteristics and, in particular, on the soil processes and properties influencing the wine quality. In this study, the wine aromatic characteristics were analyzed using gas chromatography and a tasting panel and were compared with soil properties. Soil calcareous con...
  • SELECTION OF NATIVE YEAST OF CALCHAQUI SALTEÑO VALLEY FOR TORRONTES WINE SELECCIÓN DE LEVADURAS NATIVAS DEL VALLE CALCHAQUÍ SALTEÑO PARA VINO TORRONTÉS
    SEMKE, Rosa1; FILI, Marcela3; GONZALEZ, Magalí2; COMBINA, Mariana2; DEL CASTILLO, Lourdes4* 1 CDV Salta-Valle Calchaquí, Rivadavia 369 (4427), Cafayate, Salta, Argentina INTA EEA Mendoza, San Martín 3853, Lujan de Cuyo (5507), Mendoza, Argentina 3 INTA EEA Salta, Ruta Prov. 68, Km 172 (4402), Cerrillos, Salta, Argentina 4 INTA AER Cafayate, Rivadavia 369 (4427), Cafayate, Salta, Argentina 2 * Corresponding author: delcastillo.lourdes@inta.gob.ar

    The Torrontés Riojano is an emblematic variety in the Calchaquí Salteño Valley. The obtaining of selected native yeasts is a tool of differentiation of the wines, highlighting unique characteristics of the terroir. Native yeasts were isolated from spontaneous fermentations of Torrontés grapes harvested in nine zones of the Valley. We obtained ...
  • VITICULTURAL SUITABILITY OF SÃO JOAQUIM, SANTA CATARINA STATE, BRAZIL VITICULTURA SUSTENTABLE DE SAN JOAQUÍN, ESTADO DE SANTA CATARINA, BRASIL
    SANTOS, Erico1*; FLORISBAL, Luana2; LOSS, Arcângelo2 1 Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul. 2Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina *Corresponding author: ericogeologia@gmail.com

    São Joaquim (28º17'38 "S and 49º55'55" O) is a viticultural region located on the Santa Catarina Plateau, south region of Brazil, which is known for vineyards that produce fine wines from grapes cultivated at altitude (> 900 m). It is amongst the coldest (annual average of 13.42 ºC, 1832.36 hours of solar radiation and 1680.23 mm of precipitat...
  • NON-TRADITIONAL GRAPE VARIETY FOR ELABORATION OF SPARKLING WINES: PHENOLIC EVOLUTION DURING AGING ON LEES VARIEDAD DE UVA NO TRADICIONALES PARA LA PRODUCCIÓN DE VINO ESPUMOSO: EVOLUCIÓN FENÓLICA DURANTE EL ENVEJECIMIENTO SOBRE LÍAS
    SARTOR, Saionara1*; CALIARI, Vinícius2, 3; BORDIGNON-LUIZ, Marilde T.1 1 Departamento de Ciência e Tecnologia de Alimentos, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Rod. Admar Gonzaga, 1346, Itacorubi, 88034-001, Florianópolis/SC, Brasil. 2 Empresa de Pesquisa Agropecuária e Extensão Rural de Santa Catarina (EPAGRI/Videira), João Zardo, 1660, 89560-000, Videira/SC, Brasil. 3Universidade do Oeste de Santa Catarina, Rua Paese, 198, Bairro Universitário, 89560-000, Videira/SC, Brasil. *Corresponding author: saionarasartor@gmail.com

    The use of non-traditional grape varieties for elaboration of sparkling wines is a challenge for the winemaking industry. The Goethe variety stands out as being a typical cultivar of the Urussanga Region in the south of Santa Catarina State, Brazil, where most of its production is directed to the elaboration of still wines. The objective of this w...
  • EFFECT OF ETHEPHON APPLICATION ON GRAPE RIPENING AND WINE QUALITY DURING TWO YEARS EFECTO DE LA APLICACIÓN DE ETEFÓN EN EL VIÑEDO. EFECTO SOBRE LA MADURACIÓN DE LA UVA Y LA CALIDAD DEL VINO DURANTE DOS AÑOS
    SANTAMARÍA, Pilar; PORTU, Javier; LÓPEZ-ALFARO, Isabel; GONZÁLEZ-ARENZANA, Lucía; GUTIÉRREZ, Ana Rosa; LÓPEZ, Rosa* ICVV, Instituto de Ciencias de la Vid y el Vino (Gobierno de La Rioja, Universidad de La Rioja, CSIC). Finca La Grajera, Ctra. Burgos, km 6 (LO-20-Salida 13), 26071 Logroño, Spain. *Corresponding author: rosa.lopez@icvv.es

    Ethephon is known to be a growth regulator that, when applied to the plant, is metabolized into ethylene. In this study, it has been evaluated the foliar application at the beginning of veraison of a commercial product (Fruitel 180, 18% w/v ethephon) in a Vitis vinifera L. cv. red Tempranillo vineyardin La Rioja (north of Spain). The study was car...
  • WINEMAKING AGENTS IN ROSÉ SPARKLING WINES: EVOLUTION OF PHENOLIC COMPOSITION AND STABILITY OF TANNINS AGENTES DE VINIFICACIÓN EN VINO ESPUMOSO ROSADO: EVOLUCIÓN DE LA COMPOSICIÓN FENÓLICA Y ESTABILIDAD DE LOS TANINOS
    SARTOR, Saionara1*; PANCERI, Carolina1, 2; dos PASSOS, Robson Rodrigo1; CALIARI, Vinícius3, 4; BORDIGNON-LUIZ, Marilde T.1 1 Departamento de Ciência e Tecnologia de Alimentos, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Rod. Admar Gonzaga, 1346, Itacorubi, 88034-001, Florianópolis/SC, Brasil 2Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia de Santa Catarina, Campus Urupema, Estrada do Senadinho, Centro, 88625-000, Urupema/SC, Brasil. 3Empresa de Pesquisa Agropecuária e Extensão Rural de Santa Catarina (EPAGRI/Videira), João Zardo, 1660, 89560-000, Videira/SC, Brasil 4 Universidade do Oeste de Santa Catarina, Rua Paese, 198, Bairro Universitário, 89560-000, Videira/SC, Brasi. *Corresponding author: saionarasartor@gmail.com

    Rosé sparkling wines require special elaboration methods that ensure their quality and color stability during aging in bottle. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of the addition of different concentrations of gum arabic and tannin in Brazilian rosé sparkling wines elaborated by the Traditional method (cv. Cabernet Sauvignon) a...
  • MODIFICATION OF THE SOURCE RELATIONSHIP AND ITS INFLUENCE ON THE PRIMARY AND SECONDARY METABOLISM IN TANNAT GRAPES MODIFICACIÓN DE LA RELACIÓN FUENTE- FOSA Y SU INFLUENCIA SOBRE EL METABOLISMO PRIMARIO Y SECUNDARIO EN UVAS TANNAT
    SALVARREY, Julia1*; FERRER, Milka1; GONZÁLEZ-NEVES, Gustavo2 1 Dpto. Producción Vegetal, Facultad de Agronomía, Universidad de la República, Av. Garzón 780, CP 12900 Montevideo, Uruguay. 2 Dpto. de Tecnología de los Alimentos, Facultad de Agronomía, Universidad de la República, Av. Garzón 780, CP 12900 Montevideo, Uruguay. *Corresponding author: jsalva@fagro.edu.uy

    In this study, the response of Tannat, an emblematic variety of the Uruguay, to the modification of the source relationship (S/S) was evaluated, through the leaf removal on fruit set and thinning of clusters at veraison, measuring the composition of the grape. The tests took place in a commercial vineyard (34º53'S, 56º19'W) and the results corre...
  • GLYCOSYLATED AROMA PRECURSORS IN MICROVINE GRAPEVINE FRUIT FOLLOWING GUAIACOL FOLIAR APPLICATION PRECURSORES AROMÁTICOS GLICOSILADOS EN UVAS DE MICROVIDES TRAS UNA APLICACIÓN FOLIAR DE GUAYACOL
    SÁNCHEZ-GÓMEZ, Rosario1; TORREGROSA, Laurent2; ZALACAIN, Amaya2; OJEDA, Hernán3; BOUCKENOOGHE, Virginie4; SCHNEIDER, Rémi4; ALONSO, Gonzalo L.1; SALINAS, M. Rosario1* 1 Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, E.T.S.I. Agrónomos y Montes, Cátedra de Química Agrícola, Avda. de España s/n, 02071 Albacete, Spain. 2INRA, UE0999, Unité expérimentale de Pech Rouge, Gruissan, France. 3 Montpellier SupAgro, 2 place P Viala, Montpellier Cedex 02, France. 4Institut Français de la Vigne et du Vin. Pôle RhôneMéditerranée. 53, rue Claude François – 34080 Montpellier, France. *Corresponding author: Rosario.Salinas@uclm.es

    Several previous open-field experiments have shown that foliar applications with guaiacol solutions can modify wine volatile composition. After such treatment, guaiacol glycoconjugates were detected in fruits, leaves and shoots of Monastrell variety, suggesting that aglycone compounds could be released during wine processing with some changes on t...
  • STRATEGIES OF CONTROL OF MEALYBUGS (PLANOCOCCUS FICUS) IN VINEYARD OF CAFAYATE- SALTA. ADAPTIVE RESEARCH ESTRATEGIAS DE CONTROL DE COCHINILLA (PLANOCOCCUS FICUS) EN UN VIÑEDO DE CAFAYATE- SALTA. INVESTIGACION ADAPTATIVA
    SALGUERO, Karen1*; MESTRE, Eugenia1; PAYO, Gloria2; CHURQUINA, Sergio1 1 INTA AER Cafayate, Rivadavia 369, Cafayate (4427), Salta, Argentina INTA EEA Salta, Ruta Nac. 68 Km 172, Cerrillos (4403), Salta, Argentina 2 *Corresponding author: salguero.karen@inta.gob.ar

    The present work aimed to compare different control strategies for mealybugs (Planococcus ficus). The adaptive research experience was carried out in a vineyard of Tolombón, Cafayate, Salta (Argentina), in 2015/2016 period, in Cabernet Sauvignon variety, in vertical shoot. The treatments proposed: T1) Diffusers of sexual confusion: in 0.9 ha, 350...
  • A SLIGHT TEMPERATURE INCREASE MODULATES CHANGES IN PHYSIOLOGY AND GRAPE QUALITY OF TWO COMMERCIAL VINES OF CENTRAL CHILE UN LEVE AUMENTO DE LA TEMPERATURA EN DOS VIÑEDOS COMERCIALES DE CHILE CENTRAL MODULA CAMBIOS EN LA FISIOLOGIA Y CALIDAD DE LAS BAYAS
    SALAZAR-PARRA, Carolina1; REYES, Marisol2; MONTANO, Camila1; VALENZUELA, Alejandra1 1 Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias, INIA La Platina, Santa Rosa 11610, Santiago, Chile. Instituto de 2 Investigaciones Agropecuarias, INIA Raihuen. Avda. Esperanza s/n, KM 284. San Javier. Chile. *Corresponding author: carolina.salazar@inia.cl

    Current climate change sceneries represent a menace for grapevine production. Models have estimated than in the middle of the century temperature will increase aprox. 2°C. Considering this, it is relevant to identify the effects of temperature increase on commercial vineyards for improving the agricultural management in futures climate change sce...
  • EVALUATION OF VINEYARD DIFFERENTIAL MANAGEMENT ZONES BY REMOTE SENSING AND RELATIONSHIP WITH PRODUCTIVITY AND WINE QUALITY (cv TEMPRANILLO) IN THE A.O. RIBERA DEL DUERO EVALUACIÓN DE UNIDADES DE MANEJO DIFERENCIADO DE VIÑEDO POR SENSORES REMOTOS Y SU RELACIÓN CON LA PRODUCTIVIDAD Y CALIDAD DEL VINO EN LA D.O. RIBERA DEL DUERO
    RUBIO, José A.1*; PÉREZ-MAGARIÑO, Silvia1; BUENO, Marta1; DEL BLANCO, Vicente1; GARCÍA, Raúl2; BARAJAS, Enrique1 1 Instituto Tecnológico Agrario de Castilla y León. Ctra. Burgos, Km 119. 47071 Valladolid. Bodegas y Viñedos Martín Berdugo S.L. Ctra. de la Colonia, s/n. Aranda de Duero (Burgos) 2 *Corresponding author: rubcanjo@itacyl.es

    This work is carried out during 2016 on a commercial vineyard to evaluate productivity and wine final characteristics in different subplots discriminated against by remote sensing. Our purpose was to characterize vineyard differential management zones by satellite images (Sentinel 2) with 3 different levels of the NDVI index (high, medium and low)...