573 articles
  • EFFECTS OF SALINITY AND BORO IN 14 GENOTYPES OF VITIS: GROWTH, LEAF DAMAGE AND MORTALITY EFECTO DE LA SALINIDAD Y EL BORO EN 14 GENOTIPOS DE VITIS: CRECIMIENTO, DAÑO A LA HOJA Y MORTALIDAD
    BONILLA, Estefanía1; ALBARRACÍN, Aldo1; CASTILLO, Paula1; BARCENA, Nadia2; ROQUEIRO, Gonzalo1, 2; RUIZ, Mónica1, 2 1 Integrated Unit INTA - UNSJ, Agricultural Engineering Department calle 11 y Vidart S/N. Pocito. 2 INTA EEA San Juan, calle 11 y Vidart S/N. Pocito. *Corresponding author: ruiz.monica@inta.gob.ar

    For the west of Argentina, vitiviniculture represents the main agricultural industry. In the irrigated valleys where viticulture is developed, the problems of salinity and toxicity of some ions in the soil limit productivity and quality of the obtained products. The tolerance to toxic ions (Cl-, Na+, B (OH)4-) of the commercial grape cultivars is ...
  • HEAT BERRY: THE INFLUENCE OF ABIOTIC FACTORS ON THE COMPOSITION OF BERRIES, MUST AND WINE IN VITIS VINIFERA L. CV. RIESLING HEAT BERRY: L’INFLUENCE DE FACTEURS ABIOTIQUES SUR LA COMPOSITION DES BAIES, DES MOÛTS ET DES VINS DE VITIS VINIFERA L. CV. RIESLING
    BRANDT, Melanie1*; SCHEIDWEILER, Mathias1; RAUHUT, Doris2; PATZ, Claus-Dieter3; ZORN, Holger4; STOLL, Manfred1 1 Hochschule Geisenheim University, Department of General & Organic Viticulture, Blaubachstraße 19, 65366 Geisenheim, 2 Germany, Hochschule Geisenheim University, Department of Microbiology & Biochemistry, Von-Lade-Str. 1, 65366 3 Geisenheim, Germany Hochschule Geisenheim University, Department of Wine Analysis and Beverage Technology, Von4 Lade-Str. 1, 65366 Geisenheim, Germany. Justus Liebig University Giessen, Institute of Food Chemistry and Food Biotechnology, Heinrich-Buff-Ring 58, 35392 Giessen, Germany *Corresponding author: Melanie.Brandt@hs-gm.de

    It has been known for a long time that altering microclimate affects fruit composition and wine quality. The research project Heat Berry focuses on future scenarios of the climate change regarding higher temperatures and the risk of increasing sun radiation to the fruit. Field experiments were conducted in 2015 and 2016 at an experimental site at ...
  • IMPACT OF GRAPEVINE AGE ON VIGOR AND BERRY DEVELOPMENT IMPACT DE L’AGE DE LA VIGNE SUR LA VIGUEUR ET SUR LE DEVELOPPEMENT DE LA BAIE
    BOU NADER, Khalil1, 2; STOLL, Manfred1; RAUHUT, Doris1; PATZ, Claus1; JUNG, Rainer1; LOEHNERTZ, Otmar1; HILBERT, Ghislaine2; RENAUD, Christel2; ROBY, Jean-Philippe2; DELROT, Serge2; GOMÈS, Eric2 1 Hochschule Geisenheim University, Von-Lade-Str. 1, 65366, Geisenheim, Germany UMR EGFV, ISVV, 210 Chemin de Leysotte – CS 50008, 33882 Villenave d’Ornon, France 2 * Corresponding author: khalil.bounader@hs-gm.de

    The effect of grapevine age on growth and berry development was studied from 2014 to 2016 on an experimental vineyard managed by the Hochschule Geisenheim University in Geisenheim, Germany. The vineyard was initially planted in 1971 with Vitis vinifera (L.) cv. Riesling grafted on 5C Teleki. In 1995 and 2012, several rows were uprooted and replant...
  • NOVEL AND LOW COST APPROACH TO ESTIMATE LIGHT RADIATION INSIDE A CANOPY UNE APPROCHE NOVATRICE ET PEU COÛTEUSE POUR ESTIMER LE RAYONNEMENT LUMINEUX AU SEIN DE LA CANOPEE
    BONTEMPO, Andrea1; SMITH, Jason1; BRANDT, Melanie1*; PETERLUNGER, Enrico2; STOLL, Manfred1 ¹Hochschule Geisenheim University, Department of General & Organic Viticulture, Von-Lade-Str. 1, 65366 Geisenheim, Germany ²Department of Agricultural, Food, Environmental and Animal Sciences, University of Udine, Italy *Corresponding author: melanie.brandt@hs-gm.de

    The impact of different canopy systems and viticultural management practices on fruit exposure have been widely investigated, and the potential impact of microclimate on fruit composition is well recognised. However, a precise and low cost characterisation of the light conditions within the grapevine canopy is still lacking. The objective of the p...
  • IMPACT OF DELAYED HARVESTS (LH, DMR, PDMR 4.1.C) AND POSTHARVEST TECHNIQUES ON GRAPE BERRY COMPOSITION: A CRITICAL REVIEW IMPACTO DE LAS COSECHAS RETRASADAS (CR, DMR, PDMR4.1C) Y DE LAS TECNOLOGIAS POSTCOSECHA SOBRE LA COMPOSICION DE LA BAYA DE UVA: UNA REVISION CRITICA
    BONGHI, Claudio1, 2*; CARGNELLO, Giovanni3 1 DAFNAE, University of Padova, Agripolis, 35020 Legnaro, Italy, 2CIRVE, Via XXVIII Aprile, 14-31015 Conegliano, TV 3 Conegliano Campus 5.1C (Treviso) *Corresponding author: C Bonghi, claudio.bonghi@unipd.it

    At harvest, the composition of the grape berries is the result of the interaction between physiological processes genetically programmed during the developmental cycle and responses to the imposed environmental parameters that induce more or less pronounced stress conditions. To produce some tipology of wine (e.g. dessert and reinforced wines) or ...
  • HOW MUCH DETERMINANT COULD BE THE NITROGEN FERTILIZATION AROUND HARVEST FOR THE VINE CUÁN DECISIVA PUEDE SER LA FERTILIZACIÓN NITROGENADA CERCA DE LA COSECHA PARA LA VID
    BONAMAIZON, Cristian1*; CAPPELLA, Victor1; MANZANO, Juan Manuel1; PORTELA, José A.2 1 Centro de Desarrollo Vitícola Tupungato, Convenio COVIAR-INTA, Liniers 72, Tupungato (5561) Mendoza, Argentina 2 INTA EEA La Consulta, Ex Ruta 40 km 96, La Consulta (5567) San Carlos, Mendoza, Argentina *Corresponding author: bonamaizonc@gmail.com

    This work starts from the idea that the nitrogen application in pre-harvest would have positive effects on biomass accumulation of the vine plant before its winter rest, and that would enable a better and faster sprouting in the following season, without sacrificing the oenological quality of the grapes. In a malbec vineyard located in El Peral, T...
  • HYPERSPECTRAL IMAGING FOR LEAF GRAPEVINE WATER STATUS ASSESSMENT, A LEAF-BASED APPROACH USO DE IMÁGENES HIPERESPECTRALES PARA LA EVALUACIÓN DE ESTADO HÍDRICO DE VIDES, ANÁLISIS A NIVEL DE HOJA
    BELLOTTO, Alessandro1; MANZAN, Nicola1; GREYLING, Berno2; PITACCO, Andrea3; PETERLUNGER, Enrico1; STREVER, Albert2; POBLETE-ECHEVERRÍA, Carlos2* 1 Dipartimento di Scienze AgroAlimentari, Ambientali e Animali, University of Udine, Via delle Scienze 208, Udine, Italy Department of Viticulture and Oenology, Faculty of AgriSciences, Stellenbosch University, Matieland 7602, South Africa 3 Department of Agronomy, Food, Natural resources, Animals and Environment(DAFNAE), University of Padova Agripolis, 35020 Legnaro, Italy. 2 *Corresponding author: cpe@sun.ac.za

    Physiological measurements are the most accurate way of assessing plant water status. However, they are time-consuming, costly and invasive for the plant. Visible to shortwave infrared imaging spectrometers can be used to detect and monitor several biochemical variations in the leaf offering a faster, cheaper and non-destructive alternative to the...
  • EXPLORING GRAPEVINE GENETIC DIVERSITY TO FEED BREEDING PROGRAMS TO SUSTAIN WINE VITICULTURE FACING WARMING ISSUES LA DIVERSIDAD GENÉTICA, UNA HERRAMIENTA PARA PROGRAMAS DE MEJORAMIENTO DE LA VID CONTRA LOS EFECTOS DEL CAMBIO CLIMATICO
    BIGARD, Antoine1; TELLO, Ricardo1, 2; SIRE, Yannick2; LACOMBE, Thierry3; MARCHAL, Cécile4; DEDET, Sandrine4; FARNOS, Marc3; ADIVÈZE, Angélique3; ROUX, Catherine3; VEYRET, Mélanie2; PÉROS, Jean-Pierre3; DOLIGEZ, Agnès3; OJEDA, Hernán2, 4; BOURSIQUOT, Jean-Michel1; ROMIEU, Charles3; TORREGROSA, Laurent1* 1 Montpellier SupAgro, UMR AGAP- UMT Génovigne, 2 place Pierre Viala, 34060 Montpellier, France 2 INRA, Unité Expérimentale de Pech Rouge, 11430 Gruissan, France 3 INRA, UMR AGAP, 2 place Pierre Viala, 34060 Montpellier, France 4 INRA, Unité Expérimentale du Domaine de Vassal, 34340 Marseillan-Plage, France *Corresponding author: laurent.torregrosa@supagro.fr

    Genotype x Environment x Practices interactions exert a tight tuning on wine profile. To maintain the typicality of wine produced in traditional regions becomes a critical challenge in the context of rapid climate changes. While some practices may reduce adverse effects of abiotic stresses on the vine (e.g. the use of watering to maintain photosyn...
  • COMPARISON OF BILATERAL CORDON TRAINING METHODS ON THE DEVELOPMENT AND PRODUCTIVITY OF CHARDONNAY AND PINOT NOIR GRAPEVINES COMPARACIÓN DE MÉTODOS DE CONDUCCIÓN EN CORDÓN BILATERAL SOBRE EL DESARROLLO Y LA PRODUCTIVIDAD DE VIDES CHARDONNAY Y PINOT NOIR
    BETTIGA, Larry J. University of California Cooperative Extension, 1432 Abbott Street, Salinas, CA 93901, USA Corresponding author: lbettiga@ucanr.edu

    For cool windy climates and/or lower vigor sites, delays in vine development during training can result in a greater number of growing seasons to achieve full crop yield potential. Training strategies used can be a critical factor in promoting vine development and production that is appropriate to the site conditions. Bilateral cordon training met...
  • RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN LEAF AREA AND PRODUCTION IN A TRAINING SYSTEM OF VINE WITH CANOPY DIVIDED INTO TWO VERTICAL PLANES RELACIÓN DEL ÁREA FOLIAR Y LA PRODUCCIÓN EN UN SISTEMA DE CONDUCCIÓN DE VID CON CANOPIA DIVIDIDA EN DOS PLANOS VERTICALES
    BERGAS, Valeria1*; RODRÍGUEZ, José1; GALARRAGA, Ignacio1; VILA, Hernán2; CARRILLO, Natalia1; CORVALÁN, Andrea1; GÓMEZ, Francisco1; SORROCHE, Lorena1 1 Cátedra de Viticultura, Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias, UNCuyo. Almirante Brown 500, Mendoza, Argentina, cp 5507. 2 INTA, Instituto Nacional de Tecnología agropecuaria. San Martín y Araoz, Lujan de Cuyo, Mendoza. *Corresponding author: vbergas@fca.uncu.edu.ar

    There is currently trellis-training system that achieves high yields, comparable to a parral, with highquality wine and the possibility of machine harvest. Several growers in our area proposed amendments to driving systems. An innovation was the system of divided canopy "Ramé", developed by the local viticulture Luis Alberto Ramero. Luis Alberto ...
  • MINERAL, PHENOLIC AND ANTHOCYANIN PROFILE IN FLOURS OF GRAPE POMACE: EFFECTS OF DIFERENT WINEMAKING PROCESS PERFIL MINERAL, FENÓLICO Y ANTOCIANICO EN HARINAS DE ORUJO DE UVA: EFECTOS DE DIFERENTES PROCESOS DE VINIFICACIÓN
    BENNEMANN, Gabriela D.1; TORRES, Yohandra R.3; SVIECH, Letícia2; VANOLLI, Beatriz2; BOTELHO, Renato V.2* 1 Departament of Nutrition, State University of Midwestern of Paraná (Unicentro), Guarapuava, Paraná, Brasil Departament of Agronomy, Unicentro, Guarapuava, Paraná, Brasil 3Department of Chemistry, Unicentro, Guarapuava, Paraná, Brasil 2 *Corresponding author: rbotelho@unicentro.br

    Wine industry is an important economic activity in the World, generating significant quantities of residues, mostly known as grape pomace. This material is rich in many nutrients, as fiber, minerals and antioxidants substances, such as phenolic compounds. These nutraceutical properties of grape pomace could be harnessed for human or animal consump...
  • PHENOLOGICAL BEHAVIOR AND EVOLUTION OF MATURATION OF GRAPES OF JUICE PREPARATION COMPORTAMIENTO FENOLÓGICO Y EVOLUCIÓN DE LA MADURACIÓN DE UVAS PARA ELABORACIÓN DE ZUMOS
    BENDER, Angelica1; COSTA, Vagner2*; MALGARIM, Marcelo Barbosa1; ANDRADE, Suelen Braga de1; VIDALES, Valentina Florencia Savia3 1 Universidade Federal de Pelotas, UFPel, Campus Universitário Capão do Leão, s/n - Campus Universitário, Capão do Leão - RS, CEP. 96900-010 2Universidade Federal do Pampa – UNIPAMPA, Rua 21 de abril, CEP 96450000, Dom Pedrito, RS, Brasil 3Instituto Federal Sul Rio Grandense de Educação Ciência e Tecnologia- Campus Pelotas Visconde da Graça. Av. Engenheiro Ildefonso Simões Lopes, 21 - Três Vendas, Pelotas - RS, 96060-290, Brasil *Corresponding author: vagnercosta@unipampa.edu.br

    The ripening level of the grape is one of the most important factors in the quality of its derivatives, because of the complex phenomena inherently related to the varieties and environmental conditions. The objective of the present study was to monitor the phenological development of the Chardonnay variety and to evaluate the influence of the diff...
  • COMBINED EFFECT OF BERRY DENSITY AND HARVEST DATE ON THE ACCUMULATION OF PHENOLIC COMPOUNDS DURING RIPENING OF “ITALIA” TABLE GRAPE CULTIVAR EFECTO COMBINADO DE LA DENSIDAD DE BAYA Y FECHA DE VENDIMIA SOBRE LA ACUMULACIÓN DE COMPUESTOS FENÓLICOS DURANTE LA MADURACIÓN DEL CULTIVAR DE UVA DE MESA “ITALIA”
    BELVISO, Simona1#; TORCHIO, Fabrizio2#; NOVELLO, Vittorino1; GIACOSA, Simone1; DE PALMA, Laura3; RÍO SEGADE, Susana1*; GERBI, Vincenzo1; ROLLE, Luca1 1 Università degli Studi di Torino, Dipartimento di Scienze Agrarie, Forestali e Alimentari, Largo Paolo Braccini 2, 10095 Grugliasco (TO), Italy; 2Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Istituto di Enologia e Ingegneria Agro-Alimentare, Via Emilia Parmense 84, 29122 Piacenza, Italy; 3Università degli Studi di Foggia, Dipartimento di Scienze Agrarie, degli Alimenti e dell’Ambiente, Via Napoli 25, 71122 Foggia, Italy # These authors contributed equally to the study. *Corresponding author: susana.riosegade@unito.it

    In the last years, consumers are increasingly demanding for healthy foods. Table grapes are considered an important source of bioactive compounds and therefore their availability in the market should last as long as possible while preserving the phenolic quality. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of berry heterogeneity in the vi...
  • PORTABLE TOWERS PROVIDE INSIGHT ON FROST CHARACTERISTICS AND PREDICT BENEFITS OF WIND MACHINES TORRES PORTATILES REVELAN LAS CONDICIONES DE HELADAS Y PREDICEN LOS BENEFICIOS DE VENTILADORES
    BATTANY, Mark University of California Cooperative Extension; 2156 Sierra Way, Suite C; San Luis Obispo, California, 93401 USA Corresponding author: mcbattany@ucanr.edu

    Frost events occur by radiation or advection processes. The relative tendency for the different types of frosts to occur has critical importance for implementing appropriate protection measures. Wind machines in particular will generate greater warming at the crop level under stronger inversion conditions associated with radiation frosts. Measurin...
  • EVALUATING REGIONAL REFERENCE EVAPOTRANSPIRATION WITH ATMOMETERS AND MODELED VALUES UNA EVALUACION DE LA EVAPOTRANSPIRACION DE REFERENCIA CON ATMOMETROS Y VALORES DE MODELOS
    BATTANY, Mark University of California Cooperative Extension; 2156 Sierra Way, Suite C; San Luis Obispo, California, 93401 USA Corresponding author: mcbattany@ucanr.edu

    The irrigated vineyards of the Paso Robles region of California depend upon groundwater for irrigation; this groundwater supply is currently impacted by excessive withdrawals. More detailed information on regional reference evapotranspiration (ETo) will be important to improve irrigation management the region. The ETo data generated by the Spatial...
  • AN EVALUATION OF THE TEMPERATURE CONDITIONS INSIDE VINE GROW TUBES ON COLD NIGHTS EVALUACIÓN DE LAS CONDICIONES DE TEMPERATURA DENTRO DE LOS TUBOS DE CRECIMIENTO DE LA VID EN NOCHES FRÍAS
    BATTANY, Mark* University of California Cooperative Extension; 2156 Sierra Way, Suite C; San Luis Obispo, California, 93401 USA *Corresponding author: mcbattany@ucanr.edu

    Young vines are very susceptible to frost damage due to their short height which situates frost-sensitive buds and shoots very close to the ground, which is where the coldest air temperatures typically occur. Farmers often use grow tubes to protect young vines from damage by animals and herbicides, but the potential benefit for protecting vines fr...
  • PRODUCTION AND QUALITY AT DIFFERENT CANOPY POSITIONS OF BOX PRUNING GRAPEVINES (CV. SYRAH) PRODUCCIÓN Y CALIDAD EN DIFERENTES POSICIONES DE LA CANOPIA DE VID EN BOX PRUNING (CV. SYRAH)
    BARCIA, Fernando A.1*; PRIETO, Jorge A.2; TRENTACOSTE, Eduardo R.1 1 INTA EEA Junín, Isidoro Busquets s/n, Junín (5573), Mendoza, Argentina INTA EEA Mendoza, San Martín 3853, Luján de Cuyo (5507), Mendoza, Argentina 2 *Corresponding author: barcia.fernando@inta.gob.ar

    Radiation plays a key role on yield and quality. A high variability in incident radiation is observed within the leaves and grapes of a single canopy. Free-canopy training systems are being increasingly used to mechanize different operations. In these training systems, radiation is highly modified by position within the canopy. Understanding this ...
  • ECONOMIC SUSTAINABILITY OF CANADIAN GRAPE INDUSTRY. A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF OKANAGAN VALLEY AND NIAGARA PENINSULA SOSTENIBILIDAD ECONÓMICA DE LA INDUSTRIA CANADIENSE DE UVAS. UN ANÁLISIS COMPARATIVO DEL VALLE DE OKANAGAN Y LA PENÍNSULA DE NIAGARA
    BALINT, Gabriel1*; BALINT, Stela2 1 Okanagan College, School of Business,583 Duncan Ave. Penticton, BC, Canada 2 HortiCARO, St Catharine, ON, Canada *Corresponding author: gbalint@okanagan.bc.ca Abstract Sustainability is a broad concept, and its economic component is not often incorporated when sustainable farming practices are studied. This study analyses some economic parameters related to the size of vineyard operation as individual business or associated with a winery. Data has been collected from British Columbia Wine Institute, British Columbia Grape Growers Association, Grapes Growers of Ontario and Statistics Canada. Overall, Ontario has a higher percentage of growers with total acreage over 20 acres, and less vineyards under 20 acres associated with a winery compare to Okanagan Valley. Data suggest that most of the vineyards under 6 acres have also a boutique winery in order to have a sustainable business.Besides terroir and wine quality, the tourism seems to play an important role in the economic sustainability of vineyard/winery operations under 6 acres, located in Okanagan Valley. The total acreage in Ontario is almost double than in British Columbia, but the number of growers is half of this from British Columbia. This study suggests that there is not a minimum acreage to be economically sustainable as long as the operation is located in a touristic area, in the proximity of an urban settlement, with great potential to grow high quality grapes. Also, vineyard/winery entities tend to have better economic results comparing to independent growers. Keywords: Canadian wine regions, economic sustainability, farm size, tourism, 1. Introduction Sustainability is a broad concept that many industry and agriculture operations embracein their daily activitiesin the last decades. This concept integrates three components, environmental and social responsibilities with an economic goal to create value for the business and society. According to the Report of World Commission on Environment and Development,a common definition of sustainability is “meeting the needs of the present generation without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs” (United Nation report, 1987).Many studies have been conducted on sustainability in the viticulture sector in California, and most of the practitioners concluded that sustainability definition must be reduces at the “Three Es“concept: economic viability, environmental health, and social equity (Hoffman et al. 2010).Sustainability became an important goal for Canadian wine and grape industry even if it is a voluntarily decision, and not necessary with an economic return as it was found in other countries as well (Gilinsky Jr.et al. 2015). Analyzing the currentliterature,thereis no clear picture of the economic advantageofsustainablewineproduction (Forbes and De Silva 2012, Tee et al. 2007). Nowadays,thereseemstobeabroadconsensusthatinternaldriversplayamuchlargerrolethanexternalmotivati ons in adopting sustainable practices in wine industry.Szolnoki(2013)pointedout thatitisstillverydifficulttodefinetheterm“sustainability”becausenotonlyeverycountrybutalsoeveryentrepr eneurhasadifferentunderstandingofsustainabilityinthewineindustry. In the agricultural sector, increasing competition, unpredictable weather patterns, and barriers to trade can pose serious threats to the sustainability of many farm operations(Colton and Bissix, 2005). The same authors stated that small family operated farms are disappearing at a rapid rate.Small and family enterprises can be severely affected because of the lack of financial, human and material resources needed to plan, organize and execute different strategies to make necessary improvements (Alonso and Liu,2012).However, some studies on French wine industry did not find any correlation between the size of the vineyard and the ability to have a sustainable business.In the case of the wine sector, entrepreneurs continuously face competition from other wine regions, in some cases declining or shifting consumer demand, the seasonal challenges of achieving consistent product quality, and the costs associated with these processes to sustain their sector. The Canadian wine and grape industry is relatively young comparing to other parts of the world. Its diversity and thenumerous awards received for its wines attracted attentionfrom markets all around the world. Due to the fact that wine is a luxury good, consumers who are interested in purchasing wine are often associated with high incomes. Therefore wine consumers are more sensitive to quality than price. In the last decade the demand for British Columbia wines has increased by 32% (Kane, 2010). According to Carol Nelson from BC Tourism, the success of the industry is primarily due to the improved quality of wine and secondly due to tourism (Kane, 2010).Together, British Columbia and Ontario produce more than 95 percent of the total wine production in Canada, while Okanagan Valley and Niagara Peninsula represent 85 and 95 percent of the production in their province. The demand for BC wine is growing faster than vineyards can supply. The rising price of land in the BC Okanagan, which is among the most expensive in the world, makes it hard for vineyard owners to increase production or to even enter the market. The structure of the Okanagan wine industry in terms of numbers and size of both wineries and vineyards compared to Niagara Peninsula wine region is quite intrigued. Whilethereisagrowingbodyofresearchexaminingthe profitability of grape and wine businesses engaging in sustainable development, to the best of our knowledge, not to many studies have specifically focused on understanding the economic sustainability of vineyard/winery operation size. This task is hard to achieve in the New Wine World regions where the industry is very dynamic, and the wineries have followed different business models and source their grapes from various vineyards. This paper is an exploratory study on two Canadian wine regions to possibly understanding the factors that make small vineyard/winery operations to have a sustainable business. Material and methods Niagara Peninsula and Okanagan Valley are both located in areas with the best suitable conditions for growing grapes in Canada. Water bodies have a great effect in moderating the climate in both areas (Figures 1 and 2). However, Okanagan Valley is dominated by hot and dry summers, mountains that surround the valley having the most influential effect. Besides quality of wines produced in the area, tourism played a major factor in their development. Given the limited secondary data availabletoachievereliableinformation, various resources have been consulted for data accuracy. Data came mainly from the following grape and wine organizations: British Columbia Grape Growers Associations BC Winegrape Council, BC Wine Institute, Grape Growers of Ontario, Canadian Vintners Association and Statistics Canada. In each of the two vinicultural areas there are 3-5 wine/grape operators that own multiple vineyards and wineries such as Constellation brands and Andrew Peller. Most of the biggest vineyards and independent growers are associated with this companies. The impact of the tourism on local wine industry was analyzed based only on the total direct revenue related to on site restaurants, accommodation and events. Different parameters (acres, tonnage, sales, price, revenue/acre, full time vineyard equivalent, payroll, revenue per winery/acre, volume Canadian wine)have been compiled and discussed to understand the economic sustainability of Okanagan Valley growers with acreage under 10 acres. Results and discussion Theimpact of the geographicalpositioningofwineriesonthecost/benefitevaluationofsustainabilitycouldberelatedtopossible differences inthe localorganizationof theentiresupply chainor to climatic conditions which could relevantly increase the ease of managing sustainable practices(i.e.areasless susceptibletofungaldiseases). Not only the average price per ton of grapes but also the price per bottle is much higher when comparing Okanagan Valley with Niagara Peninsula. (table 1). In terms of costs (data not shown), small vineyard/wineries operations from Okanagan Valley have the advantage of selling most of their wine production on site, through their tasting room or restaurants. Transportation or using other distribution channel, along with the provincial legislation can cut considerably the margins for vineyard/winery operations in Niagara Peninsula (OMAFRA, 2013). As a consequence, in order to be sustainable economically the grape and wine industry from Ontario must compensate through increasing the size of operations. The average size of Ontario operations is almost double for each size category (table 2). Another worth observation is that Ontario wineries sell an impressive amount of wine as International Canadian Blend, which is bottled in Canada but contains just a percentage of wine made with Ontario grapes (data not shown). This approach might be economically sustainable for the big operators but not for the local grape growers. By comparison, the wine industry from British Columbia is focusing more on local grapes, which can be seen in the ratio between winery owned vineyards versus independent growers (table 1) Tourism is a major factor in the overall Canadian wine and grape industry’s impact on the economy. Canadian wineregions are l o c a t e d i n p r o x i m i t y o f US border with great potential to attract the increasing number of Americans interested in wine and culinary tourism. International travelers spend more and stay longer than domestic travelers. With 2.4 million annual visitors, the Ontario wine regions have developed alarge and loyal tourist following, enhanced by the proximity of its major wine region to the popular tourist destination of Niagara Falls. Muchlikein Ontario,estimated a onemillion annual visitors,winetourism is significant and growing throughout British Columbia, particularly in the Okanagan Valley. There is a strong focus on wines made from locally grown grapes in British Columbia. E v e n if th e w ines produced in British Columbia carry the highest average bottle prices of any of the Canadian provinces, the rate of increasing demand is tremendous high. Data is showing that the revenue that is coming from the wine tourism in Okanagan Valley is very close to that from Niagara Peninsula, even the vineyard acreage is significant higher in Niagara Peninsula compare to Okanagan Valley (Table 1). While in Niagara Peninsula the ratio between winery acreage owned versus independent grape growers is 30/70, the ratio is almost the opposite in Okanagan Valley. This suggests that the wineries from Okanagan Valley might have a better control on the crop quality. The overall revenue reported to the acreage size owned seems to be bigger when taking into consideration the winery revenue along (table 2). The net value added per worker is a not a great estimator for economies of large scale in our case(data not shown). Further, the use of this estimator is quite interesting as it is almost impossible to measure economies of scale directly (i.e. a decrease of average cost when the farm size increases) in agriculture due to the non-fixity of the cost of family labor. The acreage distribution in Okanagan Valley is reflecting the land availability and diversity in topography (table 3 and 4). The biggest vineyard acreage is located in South of Okanagan Valley, where the topography allowed planting on big plots. Another consequence of this is having bigger vineyards and lower number of growers. On the other hand, Penticton/Naramata area is dominated by a higher number of vineyards with small acreage. The Naramata Bench topography has a tremendous effect on the vineyard size.The high cluster density of vineyard/winery located in this region, attracts a high number of wine tourists who are able to taste a diversity of varieties and wine styles. Conclusion The partial data presented indicates that size cannot be a good indicator of the economic sustainability of a vineyard/winery operations. Location seems to be a major factor that affect both variety suitability (quality) and the tourism activity (selling). A vertical integration (downwards and upwards) in the wine industry seems to be the best approach when the size of the operation is small. References AGRICULTURE and AGRI-FOOD CANADA.2009.“Canadian Wine Industry.”Web. 20 Nov 2010. ALONSO, A.D., LIU, Y. 2012. Coping with changes in a sector in crisis: the case of small Spanish wineries, J of Wine Research Vol. 23, 81-95. COLTON, J.W., BISSIX, G., 2005. Developing agritourism in Nova Scotia: issues and challenges. Journal of sustainable agriculture, 27 91-112 FORBES, S.L., De SILVA, T.A., 2012. Analysis of environmental management systems in New Zealand wineries. Int. J. Wine Bus. Res., 24 98–114. 30. GILINSKY JR, A., NEWTON, S.K., VEGA, R.F. 2016. Sustainability in the global wine industry: Concepts and cases. “Sustainability of Well-Being International Forum. Florence 2015, Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia 8 37 – 49. HOFFMAN, M., LUBELL, M., HILL, V. 2010. Defining sustainable viticulture from the practitioner perspective, Practical Winery and Vineyard, Spring Issue, 1-5. KANE, MARI. 2010. “Get lost and happy in Okanagan wine country.”Marikane.com. Nd. Web. 20 Nov. 2010. OMAFRA, 2013.Starting a winery in Ontario, 100 p., Ministry of Agriculture and Food and Ministry of Rural affairs, Publication 815. SZOLNOKI, G. A. 2013. A cross-national comparison of sustainability in the wine industry. J. Clean. Prod., 53 243–251. TEE, E.; BOLAND, A.M.; MEDHURST, A. 2007. Voluntary adoption of Environmental Management Systems in the Australian wine and grape industry depends on understanding stakeholder objectives and drivers. Anim. Prod. Sci., 47 273–283. UNITED NATIONS, 1998.Report of the World Commission on Environment and Development, 42/187. Table 1 Comparative Data from the Wine industry of British Columbia, Okanagan Valley, Ontario and Niagara Peninsula Vineyard/Winery Location Economic Indicators of Canadian Wine Business Number of Grape growers Acreage (acres) Crop Tonnage (tons) Sales grapes (mil.) Average price ($/t) Revenue per acre ($) Maintenance per acre Full time vineyard equiv. Payroll mil. Wineries Production cases (mil) Cases wines (100% Canadian) Full time winery equiv. Payroll (mil. $) Revenue 100% Canadian wine per acre (mil. $) Winery revenue 100% Canadian wine (mil. $) Wine industry tourism (mil. $) Wine industry tourism Full time equiv. Payroll (mil. $) Tourists (mil) Ontario 456 18383 64226 78.7 1225 4279 4400 1903 55.3 180 8.3 2.1 2936 169.8 0.014 Niagara (ON) 387 14600 49501 60.6 1225 4153 4400 1511 43.9 92 4.2 1.07 1500 84.5 0.009 Peninsula British Columbia 929 10260 27745 47.2 1703 4605 4600 988 34 275 4.8 1.44 1126 62.0 0.019 Okanagan Valley (BC) 744 8619 23307 39.7 1703 4605 4600 829 28.5 172 3.0 0.9 704 38.7 0.014 262.5 134 199.8 127.9 311.1 3214 124.7 20 159.0 1643 63.7 2.4 246 2615 87.9 3 153.8 1634 54.8 1 Table 2 Vineyard Acreage Distribution between wineries/and independent growers NUMBER ACRES % of ACRES BC Winery Owned / Leased Acreage BC Grower Owned / Leased Acreage 412 vineyards* (254 wineries) 517 vineyards (464 growers) 6,892.4 3,367.4 67.2 32.8 ON Winery Owned/Leased 201 vineyards 7720 44 ON Grower Owned 246 vineyards 10623 56 Table 3 Vineyard acreage distribution between winery owned and independent growers across the grape regions of Okanagan Valley Region Winery own Acreage (acre) No. of Vineyards Wineries Oliver Osoyoos Kelowna/West Kelowna 2,457.0 1,037.3 756.8 91 38 41 37 10 29 Independent growers Acreage No. of Vineyards (acre) 1,182.2 112 507.4 70 280.2 44 Penticton / Naramata 531.4 73 45 483.9 121 Summerland / Peachland 237.9 23 18 166.6 36 Okanagan Falls 534.0 22 18 59.8 13 Kaleden 54.0 7 2 75.0 21 Table 4 Distribution of vineyards according to the size categories in Okanagan Valley VINEYARDSIZE NUMBER ofVINEYARDS %byNUMBERofVIN EYARDS TOTALACRESbyVINEY ARDSIZE %ACREAGE 0.00–3.00acres 190 36.7% 322.36 9.6% 3.01–5.00acres 5.01–10.00acres 10.01–20.00acres 20.01–40.00acres Over40.00acres 123 151 37 11 5 23.8% 29.2% 7.2% 2.1% 1.0% 520.75 1,141.14 518.62 328.47 536.15 15.5% 33.9% 15.4% 9.7% 15.9% A B Figure 1 A- Main Viticulture Regions in Ontario; B- Sub-Appellations from Niagara Peninsula A B Figure 2 A-Main Viticulture Regions in British Columbia; B- Main Sub Regions of Okanagan Valley

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