822 articles
  • THE EFFECT OF POST-HARVEST DEFOLIATION ON CARBON RESOURCES OF HIGH YIELDING SAUVIGNON BLANC GRAPEVINES EST-CE QUE L’EFFEUILLAGE POST-VENDANGE PEUT ENGENDRER UNE REDUCTION SIGNIFIANTE EN RESERVE DE GLUCIDE SUR UNE PARCELLE DE SAUVIGNON BLANC A HAUT RENDEMENT?
    GREVEN, Marc1*; NEAL, Sue1; TUSTIN, Stuart2; BOLDINGH, Helen3; VASCONCELOS, Carmo4 1 The New Zealand Institute for Plant and Food Research Limited, PO Box 845, Blenheim 7240, New Zealand The New Zealand Institute for Plant and Food Research Limited, Private Bag 1401, Havelock North 4157, New Zealand 3 The New Zealand Institute for Plant and Food Research Limited, Private Bag 3230, Waikato Mail Centre, Hamilton 3240, New Zealand 4 Eastern Institute of Technology, Private Bag 120, Hawke’s Bay Mail Centre, Napier 4142, New Zealand 2 *Corresponding author: marc.greven@plantandfood.co.nz

    We wanted to quantify the importance of post-harvest carbohydrate assimilation to replenish vine reserves, additional to maintaining optimal growth, productivity and fruit quality of high yielding vigorous Sauvignon blanc grapevines. To mimic the effect of autumn frost, vines were defoliated immediately after harvest. To impose additional stress o...
  • MERCURY AND VITIS VINIFERA, L. RELATIONSHIP IN THE ALMADÉN MINING DISTRICT RELACIONES ENTRE MERCURIO Y VITIS VINIFERA, L. EN EL DISTRITO MINERO DE ALMADÉN
    HIGUERAS, Pablo2; AMORÓS, José Ángel1, 2*; NAHARRO, Rocío2; ESBRI, José María2; 1, 2 CAMPOS, Juan Antonio 1 2 Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha. ETSIACR. Ronda de Calatrava 7, 13071 Ciudad Real, Spain. Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha. IGeA. Plaza Manuel Meca 1, 13400 Almadén (Ciudad Real), Spain. Corresponding author: pablo.higueras@uclm.es *

    Almadén (Ciudad Real province, SW of Castilla-La Mancha, South-Central Spain) is the center of the World’s largest mercury (Hg) mining district. Along with, Castilla-La Mancha region is an important viticulture region, with 500 000 hectares occupied by vineyards. During late years, the possibility of contamination by Hg in many alimentary produ...
  • INFLUENCE OF GENOTYPE AND WATER AVAILABILITY ON RESPIRATORY COSTS AND PLANT CARBON BALANCE IN GRAPEVINES (VITIS VINIFERA L.) INFLUENCIA DEL GENOTIPO Y LA DISPONIBILIDAD HÍDRICA EN LOS COSTES RESPIRATORIOS Y EL BALANCE DE CARBONO DE LA VID (VITIS VINIFERA L.)
    HERNÁNDEZ-MONTES, Esther*; ESCALONA, José Mariano; TOMÁS, Magdalena; BOTA, Josefina; SANCHO, Paula; MARTORELL, Sebastià; TORTOSA, Ignacio; MEDRANO, Hipólito Research Group on Plant Physiology under Mediterranean Conditions, INAGEA (UIB-INIA-CAIB) Ctra Valldemossa Km 7.5 07122 Palma de Mallorca, Spain. *Corresponding author: e.hernandez@uib.es

    Due to the important contribution of agriculture to the global carbon dioxide (CO2) balance, new techniques are currently being developed to accurately estimate the carbon balance of different crops. Field studies to date in grapevines have been based on carbon allocation and biomass accumulation dynamics. Such field studies show the carbon balanc...
  • ESTIMATING THE IMPACT OF IRRIGATION WATER SALINITY ON VINES IN THE MENDOZA AND TUNUYÁN RIVER BASINS ESTIMACIÓN DEL IMPACTO DE LA SALINIDAD DEL AGUA DE RIEGO SOBRE LA PRODUCCIÓN DE VID EN LAS CUENCAS DEL RÍO MENDOZA Y TUNUYÁN
    HERNÁNDEZ, Rocío1, 2; MARIANI, Adriana2; BERMEJILLO, Adriana2; STOCCO, Alicia2; MORÁBITO, José1, 2 1 Instituto Nacional del Agua – Centro Regional Andino. 2Universidad Nacional de Cuyo – Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias *Corresponding author: jmorabito@ina.gob.ar

    Studies on climate change impact on the South American Central Andes predict scenarios of reduced river flows and salinity increases downstream of the Mendoza and Tunuyán River basins and indicate that these impacts would lead to a reduction in crop yields. This paper shows that irrigation water salinity affects vine production. The objectives ar...
  • GUIDE FOR AGROECOLOGY IN VITICULTURE, A TOOL FOR SECTOR LE GUIDE DE L'AGRO ECOLOGIE, UN OUTIL POUR LA FILIERE
    HERBIN, Carine1; LEMPEREUR, Valérie1; GAUTIER, Jacques2* 1 IFV - Institut Français de la Vigne et du Vin, France INAO - Institut national de l’Origine et de la Qualité, France 2 *Corresponding author: j.gautier@inao.gouv.fr

    In 2014, the French public authorities launched the agroecological project for France. This project aimed at starting the transition of French agriculture towards new production systems that are more efficient in the economic, social and environmental dimensions. In 2016, the National Institute of Origin and Quality (INAO), in charge of French geo...
  • EFFECT OF VINE NITROGEN STATUS ON GRAPE BERRY AROMATIC POTENTIAL AND ON WINE AROMA EFFET DU STATUT AZOTÉ DE LA VIGNE SUR LE POTENTIEL AROMATIQUE DE LA BAIE DE RAISIN ET L’ARÔME DU VIN
    HELWI, Pierre1, 2; VAN LEEUWEN, Cornelis1*; GUILLAUMIE, Sabine1; THIBON, Cécile3; HABRAN, Aude1; HILBERT, Ghislaine1; DARRIET, Philippe3; GOMÈS, Eric1; DELROT, Serge1 1 UMR EGFV, ISVV, Bordeaux Sciences Agro, INRA, Univ. Bordeaux, F-33882 Villenave d’Ornon Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Center, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas 77845, USA 3 USC1366 Oeno, ISVV, INRA, Univ. Bordeaux, Bordeaux IPB, F-33882 Villenave d’Ornon 2 *Corresponding author: pierre.helwi@ag.tamu.edu

    The interactions between climate, soil, genetic factor and viticultural practices affect grapevine physiology and berry metabolism. Among the elements that vines pick up from the soil, nitrogen has the strongest impact on its development, grape composition and organoleptic characteristics. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of nit...
  • IN VITRO DIGESTION OF GRAPE RESIDUE OBTAINED FROM JUICE CENTRIFUGATION: BIOACTIVE POTENTIAL AND STABILITY OF ANTHOCYANINS DIGESTIÓN IN VITRO DE LOS RESIDUOS DE UVA OBTENIDOS A PARTIR DE LA CENTRIFUGACIÓN DE JUGO: POTENCIAL BIOACTIVO Y ESTABILIDAD DE LOS ANTOCIANOS
    HAAS, Isabel Cristina da Silva1*, GOMES, Trilícia Margarida1, TOALDO, Isabel Maia1 and BORDIGNON-LUIZ, Marilde T.1 1 Department of Food Science and Technology, Federal University of Santa Catarina, Admar Gonzaga Rd. 1346, Itacorubi, 88034-001, Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil. *Corresponding author: isabelhaas91@gmail.com

    Currently the search for alternative sources of natural pigments has stimulated the development of research in different sectors of viticulture. The residue of this study was obtained from the centrifugation step of grape juice clarification. This residue is rich in anthocyanins, natural pigments that, besides the ability to confer color, also hav...
  • EFFECT OF IN VITRO GASTROINTESTINAL SIMULATION ON THE BIOACCESSIBILITY OF MINERALS IN THE RESIDUE OBTAINED FROM GRAPE JUICE CENTRIFUGATION EFECTO DE LA SIMULACIÓN GASTROINTESTINAL IN VITRO EN LA BIOACCESIBILIDAD DE MINERALES DEL RESIDUO OBTENIDO DE LA CENTRIFUGACIÓN DE JUGO DE UVA
    HAAS, Isabel Cristina da Silva1*; TOALDO, Isabela Maia1; da SILVA, Marina Barbosa2; LUNA, Aderval Severino2; DE GOIS, Jefferson Santos2; BORDIGNON-LUIZ, Marilde T.1 1 Department of Food Science and Technology, Federal University of Santa Catarina, Admar Gonzaga Rd. 1346, Itacorubi, 88034-001, Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil. 2 Department of Analytical Chemistry, Rio de Janeiro State University, São Francisco Xavier, 524, Maracanã, 20550-900, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil. *Corresponding author: isabelhaas91@gmail.com

    The residue obtained from grape juice centrifugation is an excellent source of minerals, which are important for the perfect functioning of the human metabolism. In vitro digestion models are widely used to simulate the in vivo digestion process, these models aim to reproduce the physiological conditions of gastrointestinal digestion. The grape re...
  • LOCALLY APPLIED HIGH AIR TEMPERATURE SIGNIFICANTLY ALTERED BUNCH STEM AND GRAPE BERRY PHYSIOLOGY LA TEMPERATURE ELEVEE DE L’AIR, APPLIQUEE LOCALEMENT, MODIFIE SIGNIFICATIVEMENT LA PHYSIOLOGIE DES RAFLES ET DES BAIES DE RAISINS
    GOUOT, Julia1, 2; SMITH, Jason1, 3; HOLZAPFEL, Bruno1, 4; BARRIL, Celia1, 2 1 National Wine Industry Centre, Charles Sturt University, Mambarra Drive, Wagga Wagga, NSW 2678, Australia School of Agricultural and Wine Sciences, Charles Sturt University, Boorooma Street, Locked Bag 588, Wagga Wagga, NSW 2678, Australia 3 Hochschule Geisenheim University, 65366 Geisenheim, Germany 4 New South Wales Department of Primary Industries, Pugsley Place, NSW 2795, Australia 2 *Corresponding author: jgouot@csu.edu.au

    Climate change projections show major changes regarding temperature: a global warming with an increase average temperature and in frequency and severity of punctual heat events. Such changes in temperature will significantly affect the grapevine growing cycle and the bunch microclimate, known to be a major regulator of grape metabolism. A heating ...
  • DIFFERENT THERMAL ENVIRONMENT DURING DORMANT SEASON LEAD TO A DIFFERENTIAL COLD HARDINESS STATUS IN VITIS VINIFERA CV MALBEC. THE EXPERIENCE IN MENDOZA, ARGENTINA DIFERENTES AMBIENTES TÉRMICOS DURANTE LA ESTACIÓN DE DORMICIÓN INDUCEN A UN ESTADO DIFERENCIAL DE RESISTENCIA AL FRÍO EN VITIS VINIFERA CV. MALBEC. LA EXPERIENCIA EN MENDOZA, ARGENTINA.
    GONZALEZ ANTIVILO, Francisco1*; PAZ, Rosalía Cristina2; KELLER, Markus3; BORGO, Roberto4; TOGNETTI, Jorge5, 6; ROIG JUÑENT, Fidel1 1 Laboratorio de Dendrocronología e Historia Ambiental, IANIGLA, CCT-CONICET-Mendoza, Av. Ruiz Leal s/n, Parque Gral. San Martín, CC 330, PO Box 5500 Mendoza, Argentina. 2CIGEOBIO (FCEFyN, UNSJ/CONICET). Av. Ignacio de la Roza 590 (Oeste), J5402DCS, Rivadavia, San Juan, Argentina. 3Department of Horticulture, Irrigated Agriculture Research and Extension Center, Washington State University, Prosser, WA 99350, USA 4Cátedra de Fisiología Vegetal, FCA, UNCuyo. Almirante Brown 500, Luján de Cuyo, Mendoza, Argentina. 5Laboratorio de Fisiología Vegetal - FCA, UNMdP. 6Comisión de Investigaciones Científicas de la Provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina * Corresponding Author: ing.gonzalezantivilo@gmail.com

    En Vitis sp., la resistencia al frío (RF) adquirida durante la estación de dormición (ED) es crucial para la supervivencia y el rendimiento. La mayoría de la información sobre RF es obtenida en áreas cercanas a 40°N, donde las temperaturas causan daños recurrentes en viñedos. En Mendoza (Argentina, 32°35°S; MZA) también se han detectad...
  • EFFECT OF PHENYLALANINE AND UREA FOLIAR APPLICATION ON GRAPE AND MUST MICROBIOTA EFECTO DE LA APLICACIÓN FOLIAR DE FENILALANINA Y UREA EN LA MICROBIOTA DE UVAS Y MOSTOS
    GONZÁLEZ-ARENZANA, Lucía*; PORTU, Javier; LÓPEZ, Rosa; SANTAMARÍA, Pilar; LÓPEZ-ALFARO, Isabel; GUTIÉRREZ, Ana Rosa ICVV, Instituto de Ciencias de la Vid y el Vino (Universidad de La Rioja, Gobierno de La Rioja, CSIC). Finca La Grajera, Ctra. Burgos, km 6 (LO-20-Salida 13), 26071 Logroño, Spain. *Corresponding author: lucia.gonzalez@unirioja.es

    Recently, some studies have been conducted to optimize traditional nitrogen supplementation of the soil by promoting the foliar application of different nitrogen sources such as phenylalanine and urea. The aim of this study was to describe the impact of foliar phenylalanine and urea application on grape and must microbial populations. The study wa...
  • EVALUATION OF THE INFLUENCE OF NATURAL FERTILIZERS IN THE PHENOLIC COMPOSITION DURING THE MATURATION OF THE GRAPE EVALUACIÓN DE LA INFLUENCIA DE FERTILIZANTES NATURALES EN LA COMPOSICIÓN FENOLICA DURANTE LA MATURACIÓN DE LA UVA
    GOMES, Trilícia Margarida1*; PANCERI, Carolina2; MACHADO, Bruno2; BRIGHENTI, Alberto3; ESPOSITO, Luigi4; BORDIGNON-LUIZ, Marilde T.1 1 Departamento de Ciência e Tecnologia de Alimentos, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Catarina, Admar Gonzaga Rd. 1346, Itacorubi, 88034-001, Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brasil . 2Instituto Federal de Santa Catarina, Campus Urupema, Estr. Senadinho, 88625-000, Urupema, Santa Catarina, Brasil. 3 Empresa de Pesquisa e Extensão Agropecuária de Santa Catarina (EPAGRI-SC), Estação Experimental de São Joaquim, João Araújo Lima St., 102, Jardim Caiçara, 88600-000, São Joaquim, Santa Catarina, Brasil. 4 Faculdade de Biociências e Tecnologias dos Alimentos, Agricultura e Ambientais Universidade dos Estudos de Teramo, Campus universitário Coste Sant 'Agostino, Via Roberto Balzarini, 1 64100, Teramo, Itália. *Corresponding author: triliciamgomes@gmail.com.br

    The use of natural fertilizers such as silicon and calcium chloride is a potential strategy to improve grape resistance versus fungal diseases due to changes in berries physical characteristic and secondary metabolites synthesis. The purpose of this work was to study the effect of calcium chloride and silicon on grapes phenolic composition during ...
  • MALBEC RESPONSES TO LIGHT QUANTITY AND QUALITY RESPUESTA DEL MALBEC A LA CALIDAD Y CANTIDAD DE LUZ
    GONZALEZ, Carina V.1, 2*; GUEVARA, Aranzazú1, 2; PRIETO, Jorge A.3; GIORDANO, Carla4 2 * 1 IBAM, UNCuyo, CONICET, FCA Mendoza, Argentina Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, UNCuyo, Mendoza, Argentina 3 INTA EEA Mendoza, Luján de Cuyo Mendoza, Argentina 4 IADIZA – CONICET, Mendoza, Argentina Corresponding author: cgonzalez@mendoza-conicet.gob.ar

    Plant acclimation to the light environment involves changes in plant morphology, carbon- and waterphysiology, yield and quality of harvestable organs. Many cultural practices and crop management decisions alter light quantity and quality. Canopy shade signals include low PPFD, R:FR ratios, UV-B and blue light levels which are perceived by photorec...
  • SELECTION OF VITIS VINIFERA L. INTRASPECIFIC HYBRIDS FOR OBTAINING WINES WITH HIGH PHENOLIC CONTENT SELECCIÓN DE HÍBRIDOS INTRAESPECÍFICOS DE VITIS VINÍFERA L. PARA OBTENER VINOS DE ALTO CONTENIDO FENÓLICO
    GÓMEZ-PLAZA, Encarna1*; HERNÁNDEZ-JIMENEZ, Alberto1; BAUTISTA-ORTÍN, Ana Belén1; FERNÁNDEZ-FERNÁNDEZ, José Ignacio2; GIL-MUÑOZ, Rocío2 1 Dep. Tec. de Alimentos, Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad de Murcia, Campus de Espinardo, 30071 Murcia, Spain. 2 Instituto Murciano de Investigación Agraria y Alimentaria * Corresponding author: encarna.gomez@um.es

    Monastrell is the most extended variety in the South east of Spain. One of our strategies for improving its wines consists in selecting intraspecific hybrids arising from crosses between Monastrell and other high quality varieties, such as Cabernet Sauvignon, looking for those well adapted to our conditions, with a high polyphenol content and a hi...
  • GENERATION OF MILDEW-RESISTANT GRAPEVINE CLONES VIA GENOME EDITING GENERACIÓN DE CLONES DE VID RESISTENTES A MILDIU MEDIANTE HERRAMIENTAS DE EDICIÓN DEL GENOMA
    GIACOMELLI, Lisa2; ZEILMAKER, Tieme2; MALNOY, Mickael1; VELASCO, Riccardo1; VIOLA, Roberto1; ROUPPE VAN DER VOORT, Jeroen2; MOSER, Claudio1* 1 Research and Innovation Centre, Fondazione Edmund Mach, via E. Mach 1, I-38010 San Michele all'Adige, Italy 2Scienza Biotechnologies, Haling 1E, 1602 DB Enkhuizen The Netherlands *Corresponding author: claudio.moser@fmach.it

    Cultivated grapevine (Vitis vinifera) is highly susceptible to several fungal and fungal-like diseases such as powdery mildew (PM) and downy mildew (DM), which require large use of pesticides for their containment. In other crops, knock-out mutations of host genes controlling susceptibility to such diseases have proven a successful strategy to obt...
  • EFFECT OF CLOSURE TYPES AND STORAGE TEMPERATURE ON THE OXYGEN LEVELS DURING AGEING MALBEC WINES (MENDOZA, ARGENTINA) EFECTO DEL TIPO DE CIERRE Y LA TEMPERATURA DE CONSERVACIÓN SOBRE LA CONCENTRACIÓN DE OXÍGENO DURANTE EL AÑEJAMIENTO DE VINOS MALBEC (MENDOZA, ARGENTINA)
    GIUFFRIDA, Lourdes1, 2*; ASSOF, Mariela1; CASTELLANOS, Romina1, 2; ABDALA, Lucía3 1 Laboratorio de Aromas y Sustancias Naturales, Estación Experimental Agropecuaria Mendoza, Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Agropecuaria (INTA), San Martín 3853, CP 5700, Luján de Cuyo, Mendoza, Argentina. 2Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET). 3Fincas Patagónicas S.A. *Corresponding author: giuffrida.lourdes@inta.gob.ar

    During ageing, different chemical reactions occur affecting the stability of wine. These reactions depend on the temperature, the conservation time, etc. Also, these reactions are affected by dissolved oxygen (OD) and headspace oxygen (OHS) which are related to the permeability of different closures types. The aim of this work was to evaluate the ...
  • ELEMENTARY CHARACTERIZATION OF DIFFERENT PARTS OF GOETHE GRAPES USING ICP-OES CARACTERIZACIÓN ELEMENTAL DE DIFERENTES MATRICES GOETHE UVA MEDIANTE ICP-OES
    GOMES, Trilícia Margarida1*; BURIN, Vivian M.2; da SILVA, Marina Barbosa3; LUNA, Aderval Severino3; DE GOIS, Jefferson Santos3; BORDIGNON-LUIZ, Marilde T.1 1 Departamento de Ciência e Tecnologia de Alimentos, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Admar Gonzaga Rd. 1346, Itacorubi, 88034-001, Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil. 2 Instituto Federal de Santa Catarina, Campus Canoinhas. Av. Expedicionários, 2150, Campo d’Água Verde, Canoinhas, SC, Brasil. 3 Departamneto de química analítica, Universidade Estadual do Rio de Janeiro, São Francisco Xavier, 524, Maracanã, 20550-900, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil. *Corresponding author: triliciamgomes@gmail.com.br

    American and crossbreed grapes varieties show a good adaptation to the climatic conditions of different Brazilian regions, representing about 70% of total production of Santa Catarina state (Brazil). Goethe is a white grape variety largely grown in the south region of Braziland represents the first geographical recommendation of the state. In this...
  • ANALYSIS OF ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITY AS A TOOL FOR THE STUDY OF A VINEYARD SOIL IN GUALTALLARY, MENDOZA, ARGENTINA. USES AND LIMITATIONS ANÁLISIS DE LA ELECTRO-CONDUCTIVIDAD PARA EL ESTUDIO DEL SUELO DE UN VIÑEDO EN GUALTALLARY, MENDOZA, ARGENTINA. USOS Y LIMITACIONES
    FRAMARINI, Federico1; CAPARROS, Pablo2; KAISER, Martin3* 1 Manager AGROPRAXES Technic Director AGROPRAXES 3 Vineyard Manager of Viña Doña Paula 2 * Corresponding author: mkaiser@donapaula.com.ar

    The soil apparent electrical conductivity (ECa) is a widely used tool in the study of the geospatial variations of chemical and physical properties of the soil. The goal of the present work is to determine if the use of ECa is suitable for mapping aluvial soils from the Andes foothills. In a 10 years old 130 ha vineyard of Gualtallary region, ECa ...
  • MODELLING IMPACT OF VITICULTURAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS ON ROTUNDONE IN DURAS WINE MODELIZACIÓN DEL IMPACTO DE LOS FACTORES VITIVINÍCOLAS Y AMBIENTALES EN LA CONCENTRACIÓN EN ROTUNDONA DE LOS VINOS TINTOS DE DURAS
    GEFFROY, Olivier1, 2*; DESCOTES, Juliette1; DEBORD, Christian3; SCHEINER, Javier2; DUFOURCQ, Thierry4 1 IFV – Pôle Sud-Ouest, V’innopôle, BP22, 81310 Lisle sur Tarn – France Ecole d’Ingénieurs de PURPAN, 75 voie du TOEC, BP57611, 31076 Toulouse – France 3 IFV - Pôle Bordeaux Aquitaine, 39 rue Michel Montaigne, 33290 Blanquefort – France 4 IFV - Pôle Sud-Ouest, Domaine de Mons, 32100 Caussens – France 2 *Corresponding author: olivier.geffroy@purpan.fr

    Rotundone is the aroma compound responsible for peppery aroma in red wines which was discovered in 2008 in a Syrah wine from Australia. More recently, it has been found in several cultivars grown in the South West of France such as Duras, Gamay and Malbec. A study was conducted in 2013 and 2014 to determine the key environmental and viticultural v...
  • TOWARDS AN AGROECOLOGICAL VITICULTURE: ADVANCES AND CHALLENGES HACIA UNA VITICULTURA AGROECOLÓGICA: AVANCES Y DESAFÍOS
    GARY, Christian1*; METRAL, Raphaël2; METAY, Aurélie2; GARCIA, Léo2; MEROT, Anne1; SMITS, Nathalie1; WERY, Jacques2 1 Inra, UMR System, F-34060 Montpellier, France Montpellier SupAgro, UMR System, F-34060 Montpellier, France 2 *Corresponding author: christian.gary@inra.fr

    To improve its sustainability, viticulture should increase the provision of ecosystem services to decrease its use of inputs and the resulting environmental impact while maintaining high socio-economic performance. Soil functions in relation with their physical, chemical and biological properties can be regulated by proper soil surface management....